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Curriculum Indian Culture and Heritage of NIOS in SS Coaching


223   Indian Culture and Heritage

1.0  Rationale

It is a fact that a nation is progressive and developed in true sense when people are proud of being its citizens. India is one of the ancient nations which has survived, preserved and propagated her culture inspite of a very hard struggle for existence.   She has survived because of the eternal values that she has cherished and developed since the time immemorial.   Her culture is a living one rooted in a living past and based on undying spiritual foundation, which inspite of its ups and downs, has kept the lamp of the spirit burning.   She has established the principle of spiritual oneness under the great variety found in the world, the world of thought as well as physical world.  The study of one’s cultural heritage leads one to the appreciation of beauty and wisdom in life.   Thus the knowledge of the cultural heritage of our great land is essential for each and every citizen of the country.  No education can claim to be successful until and unless it is founded on the country’s cultural   background and is able to fulfill the aspirations of its people.



2.0  Objectives

The main objectives of this course are –



  • to develop among the learners a feeling of love and a sense of belongingness towards the nation.
  • to impart knowledge about the glorious culture and rich heritage of the country.
  • to acquaint the learners with the great contributions of our ancestors in the areas of philosophy, science, arts, music, architecture etc
  • to acquaint the learners with the underlying unity among different religions’ in India and unity in other diversities.
  • to acquaint the learners with the impact of Indian Culture in different countries of the world.



Culture : Definition and Characteristics



Indian Culture through the Ages



Languages and Literature



Indian Philosophical Thought



Fine Arts



Science and Technology






Social Structure



Spread of Indian Culture Abroad








Description of Course


Module 1 : Culture : Definition and Characteristics



Marks : 10           Study Hours : 20

This module is designed to develop an understanding of the concept and meaning of culture. The salient features of Indian culture which make it distinct will also be discussed.


Unit 1 : Culture : Meaning and Components

  • Definition of Culture
  • Concept of Culture (Sanskriti) in India;
  • Characteristics of Culture – Culture is Universal, Dynamic Nature of Culture, Culture is Acquired and Learned, Culture includes both material and non-material components
  •  Emergence of Culture – Evolution of Culture, Savagery, Barbarism, Pastoral, Agricultural, Industrialization
  •  Meaning of Civilization – Variation in Civilization, Culture and Civilization, Culture and Heritage

Unit 2 : Salient Features of Indian Culture

  • Indian Concept of Culture
  • Salient Features of Indian Culture – Spirituality, Universality, Unity in Diversity, Scientific Outlook, Theory of Karma, Love for Nature, Reverence for Women, Value Based Society
  • Towards Synthesis of Cultures


Module 2 :  Indian Culture through the Ages


Marks : 14        Study Hours : 35

This module aims at developing an understanding of the historical development of Indian Culture. The evolution of Indian Culture through the Ages will be highlighted . This module will also help the learners to know about religious impact and the reformative movements.


Unit 3 : Indian Culture through the Ages : Ancient India – I

  • Lifeline of Indian Culture
  • Time Scale
  •  Evolution of Human Body
  • Dynamism of Indian Culture
  • Historical Perspective : Roots of Indian Culture in Sindhu-Saraswati Civilization and Vedic Culture


Unit 4 : Indian Culture Through the Ages : Ancient India – II

  • Popular Religious Reforms
  • Vedic Revival in South India
  • The Age of Empires
  • The Rajputs
  • Pallavas and Cholas


Unit 5 : Indian Culture Through the Ages : Medieval India – I

  • Arrival of Muslims
  • Rise of Sufism – Four Silsilahs,
  • Political Aspect
  • Cultural Development in India
  • Influence on Religion and Society

Unit 6 : Indian Culture Through the Ages : Medieval India – II

  • Development of Folk Arts – Painting, Music
  • Indo-Mughal Culture
  • Rise of Modern Indian Languages
  • New Faiths – Sikh, Parsi
  • Southern India

Unit 7 : Indian Culture Through the Ages : Modern India

  • Rise of the West and its Impact on India
  •  India by the end of the 18th Century
  • Social Conditions
  • Social and Religious Reformers – Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Swami Dayanand, Jyotiba Govindraro Phule, Narayan Guru, Pandita Rama Bai
  • Press and the growth of Modern Indian Languages and Literature – Since Independence, India Today
  • Conclusion


Module 3 : Languages and Literature


Marks : 10             Study Hours : 25


This module is intended to acquaint  the learners with Indian languages and   literature. Our Vedas are the oldest literature, which deal with all the dimensions of human life. The Upanishads present the philosophical knowledge contained in Vedas.  Most of the ancient literature of India is in Sanskrit. A large number of languages is used in India now a days. All this will be discussed in this module.


Unit 8 : Indian Languages and Literature – I

  • Indian Languages
  • The Vedas – Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sam Veda, Atharva Veda
  • The Upnishads
  • Epics : Ramayan and MahaIndia – The Bhagvat Gita,
  • Puranas
  • Buddhist and Jain Literature in Pali, Prakrit and Sanskrit
  • Sanskrit Literature


Unit 9 : Indian Languages and Literature – II

  • Northern Indian Languages and Literature – Urdu and Persian, Hindi Literature, Bengali, Assamese and Oriya Literature, Punjabi and Rajasthani, Gujarati Language, Sindhi, Marathi, Kashmiri Literature



Module 4 : Indian Philosophical Thought

Marks : 10    Study Hours : 25


This module is designed with the aim to explain the Indian philosophic thoughts. This module will also help the learners to understand the continuity and change in Indian Thought and Practice.


Unity 10 : Concept and Meaning of Philosophy

  • Metaphysics (Theory of Reality) – Cosmology, Nature of Human Being, Problem of Freedom, Concept of God
  • Epistemology – Agnosticism, Skepticism, Affirmation of Knowledge, Experimentalism
  • Logic
  • Ethics
  • Aesthetics

Unity 11 : Different Schools of Philosophy – I

  •  Systems of Indian Darshan – Samkhya System, Main Characteristics, Prakrit, Nature of Purusha
  •  Philosophy of Yoga – Main Characteristics, The Eight-fold Yoga
  • Nyaya Philosophy - Main Characteristics
  • Vaisheshika Philosophy – Main Characteristics
  •  Mimansa Philosophy – Main Characteristics, Validity of Knowledge, Mimansa Metaphysics, Mimamsa Philosophy of Religion
  • Vedanta Philosophy – Main Characteristics, Advaita Metaphysics, The Doctrine of Maya


Unity 12 : Different School of Philosophy – II

  • Charvaka School – Main Characteristics – Cosmology, Carvaka Ethics
  • Jain Philosophy – Main characteristics
  • Philosophy of Buddha – Main Characteristics



Unity 13 : Unity and Continuity in Indian Thought

  • Unity in Diversity – Main Common Characteristics


Module 5 : Fine Arts


Marks : 10          Study Hours : 25

In Ancient Indian society  Art went hand in hand with religion.  Our temples have been repositories of all arts. Thus Indian Art is spiritual in its outlook, idealistic in expression and sublime in interpretation.  This module intends to make the learners aware of spiritual objectives behind ancient Indian Art. An attempt will also be made to acquaint the learners with folk art and crafts (Rural and Tribal) along with the impact of Mughal and Roman art.


Unit 14 : Indian Art – Visual Arts – Painting and Sculpture

  • Concept of Art
  •  Painting
  • Sculpture
  • Evolution of Art - Mauryan Era, Ajanta, Mughal Era, British Company School, Modern Indian Art, Folk Art, Mithila Painting, Kalamkari Painting, Warli Painting, Kalighat Painting, Pahadi Painting
  • Role of Art in Indian Culture



Unit 15 : Indian Art – Performing Arts – Music, Dance and Drama

  • Concept of Performing Arts
  • A Brief History of Music (Sangeet), Dance (Nritya), Drama (Natak)
  • Present Scenario of the three Art forms
  • Some Important Dramas and their Writers - Well Known Dancers, Important Musicians who have contributed in the field of music
  • Art forms and the Development of Human Personality


Unit 16 : Indian Architecture

  • Architecture – Origins
  • Indian Perspective
  • Evolution of Indian Architecture – Pre-Historic Indus Valley Period, Development in the Rig Vedic Period, Early Historic Period, Architecture in Mughal Era
  • Colonial Architecture and The Modern Period
  • Greatness of Indian Architecture
  • Limitations of Indian Architecture




Module 6 : Science & Technology


Marks : 12           Study Hours : 30

This module brings the contribution of ancient Indian scientists into limelight. This will highlight the contribution of Indians to the filed of Science and Technology which is no less significant than their contribution of spiritual wisdom. Through this module our learners will know our ancestors who made immense contribution in the field of science and technology. The reference of great scientists will be made at proper places.


Unit 17 : Science and Technology

  • Vedas as the supreme source of knowledge
  • Achievements in Metallurgy – Iron Pillar at Mehraulli, Copper Statue of Buddha
  •  Aeronautical and Marine Times
  •  Mathematics
  • Astronomy
  • Astrology
  • Physics
  • Chemistry
  • Natural Sciences and Ayur-Ved
  • Concept of ecological Balance rooted in Traditions


Unit 18 : Science and Scientists of Ancient India – I

  • Mathematics - India’s Numeral System – Baudhayan, Aryabhatta, Brahmgupta, Bhaskaracharaya
  • Physics – Kanad, Varahmihir
  • Chemistry - Nagarjuna
  • Astronomy



Unit 19 : Sciences and Scientists of Ancient India – II

  • Biology z   Surgery z   Sushrut
  •  Astrology - Phalit Jyotish
  • Ayurved – Noteworthy Features of Ayurved, Charak
  • Yog – Patanjali

Unit 20 : Science and Scientists of Medieval India

  • Sciences in Medieval Period – Mathematics, Biology, Chemistry, Astronomy, Medicine, Agriculture



Unit 21 : Scientists of Modern India

  • Srinivas Ramanujan
  • Chandershekhar V. Raman
  • Jagdish Chander Bose z      Homi Jehangir Bhabha z   Dr. Vikram Sarabhai
  • Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam


Module 7 :  Education


Marks : 12         Study Hours : 30

The ancient system of education in India not only imparted education to earn livelihood but also to develop all round personality of the students. Ancient universities such as Takshila and Nalanda had attained phenomenal growth and fame in the world. This module is designed to introduce the learners with ancient educational system and present problems and developments in the field of education.


Unit 22 : Education System in Ancient India

  • General Concept of Education
  • Aims and Objectives of Education
  • Concept of four Rinas
  • Other methods to Preserve Cultural Tradition
  • Gurukul System
  • Teacher Student Relationship (Guru-Shisya Parampara)
  • Subjects of Study
  •  Concepts of Biksha and Guru Dakshina
  •  Education of Girls



Unit 23 : Famous Centres of Learning in Ancient India

  • Takshila – Nalanda, Valabhi, Vikramasila, Kashi, Nadia, Mithila
  • Method of Teaching in the Vedic Schools

Unit 24 : Contemporary Education System (Brief Historical Perspective and its  Problems)

  • Important Features of the Ancient Education System
  • Education System under Buddhism – Teaching Methods, Type of Examination System
  • Education in Mughal Period – Salient features of Muslim Education
  • Education under the British Rule – Domination by Christian Missionaries, Objective of English Education, Setting of Education Departments, Higher Education
  • Sri Aurobindo’s National system of Education
  • School Education in the Post Independence India
  • Problems of Contemporary Education
  • Some Notable Developments in the Field of Education
  • Diversified Fields of Education


Module 8 : Social Structure


Marks : 12             Study Hours : 30

A study of culture of any society has to include all aspects of the social life. To know the Indian culture, it is important to know the social structure of contemporary society.  This module intends to make the learners aware of social structure of India starting from individual and reaching to the entire world of beings.


Unit 25 : Indian Social Structure ‘Varna’ and ‘Jati’ Systems

  • Social Structure of Indian Society
  • Varna System – Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya, Shudra
  • Emergence of Caste (Jati) System


Unit 26 : Indian Value System ‘Purusharth’ and ‘Ashram’ System

  • Concept of ‘Purusharth’ – Dharm, Arth, Kaam, Moksh
  •  Social Significance of Purusharth
  •  Concept of Rin (Debts)
  • Social Institution of ‘Ashram’ – Brahmacharya, Grihasth, Vanprasth and Sanyas
  • Social significance of the Ashram system
  • Sanskars


Unit 27 : Concept of Family and Place of Woman in the Indian Society


  • Concept of Family – Characteristics of Family, Functions of Family
  • Family in Indian Perspective – Importance of Marriage,
  • Family System in India – Characteristics of Joint Family
  • Status and Role of Women in the Indian Society



Unit 28 : Some Contemporary Social Problems

  • Dowry Problem
  • Drug Abuse and Drug Dependence
  • Child Abuse – Problem of the Girl Child and Women
  • Problem of the Aged
  • Problem of Poverty and Unemployment
  • Overview




Module 9 : Spread  of Indian Culture Abroad


Marks : 12           Study Hours : 30

While others conquered the other countries through wars, Indians made their way in foreign lands through the heart of the people living there.  Right from the beginning Indian culture attracted the students and aspirants of other countries who took with them the spirit of Indian culture to their lands. This module will explain to the learners how the Indian culture spread far beyond the geographical boundaries of India through trade, learning, indentured labour or religious ambassadors.

Unit 29 : Spread of Indian Culture Abroad : Modes

  • Spread of Indian Culture Through Traders
  • Through Teachers, Emissaries and Missionaries
  • Through Indentured Labour and Other Modes – Indentured Labour, Romas
  • Non-Resident Indians

Unit 30 : Indian Culture in Central and East Asia

  • Afghanistan z   Central Asia z   China
  • Korea z   Japan z   Nepal
  • Mongolia, Siberia and Buryatia
  • Tibet
  • Bhutan

Unit 31 : Indian Culture in South East Asia

  • Sri Lanka
  • Burma
  • Thailand
  • Laos
  • Cambodia
  • Vietnam (Champa)
  • Malaysia
  • Indonesia

Unit 32: Spread of Indian Culture Abroad – West Asia

  • Participation of Navy in trade
  • India’s contact with Africa z   India’s contact with Rome z   Early Indians Expansion
  • Emperor Asoka’s contribution to the world outside
  • Spread through Scholars
  • A spread of Medical Knowledge Abroad
  • Spread through Indented Labourers

For any help related to admission in NIOS please contact SS Coaching @ on our Mobile No. 9935035316 , 6387563947.

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